Paul Marmet.


About the Author

Paul Marmet, Ph. D. (1932-2005)


From 1990 to 1999, Paul Marmet was assistant professor in the physics department of the University of Ottawa.  He was a senior researcher at the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics of the National Research Council of Canada, in Ottawa, from 1983 to 1990.  From 1967 to 1982, he was director of the laboratory for Atomic and Molecular Physics at Laval University in Québec City. 

A past president of the Canadian Association of Physicists (1981-1982), he also served as a member of the executive committee of the Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada from 1979 to 1984.  Marmet was elected Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada in 1973 and was made an Officer of the Order of Canada in 1981.  The Order of Canada is the highest decoration bestowed by the Canadian government.

The Author’s Electron Beam Device.

Paul Marmet (Who’s Who) is shown here at the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics in Ottawa with the electron spectrometer he pioneered.  The spectrometer developed during his Ph. D. thesis (1960) produces a very low-energy monoenergetic electron beam (0 to 100eV) in vacuum which is used to study the internal structure of atoms and molecules.  This spectroscopic technique uses a beam of monoenergetic electrons instead of photons used by most spectroscopists.  As in other electron beam devices, the free electrons are produced by heating a filament in high vacuum.  Just after emission, electrons in such a beam vary in their individual energies by 1eV or more.  In Marmet’s spectrometer, the spread of electron energies is reduced to 10mV so that the results of the interaction provide information with a resolution improved by a factor of 100.  Also, an electrodynamic quadrupole mass spectrometer with hyperbolic electrodes is used instead of a magnetic analyser, since the sensitive electron source requires a magnetic-field free environment.  The ion current is measured counting individual ions. 

In the ion source, the electron beam is crossed with a collimated beam of atoms or molecules directed at right angle.  The number of ions produced in the resulting interactions is measured as a function of the electron energy, and provides the information about the electron configuration in the atoms and molecules.  The energy of the electron beam gives the absolute energy of the quantum state.

The advantages of using an electron beam instead of photons are multiples.  Since photons do not carry electric charges, they cannot produce directly negative ions.  The absence of an electric charge in photons is responsible for the fact that most of the negative ions have not been studied extensively.  The energy of excited negative ion states is a very undeveloped field in physics.  These negative ions are however very important in the experiments in plasma physics.

Using this electron beam, this instrument measures multiple electronic states of negative ions of hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, all the halogens and also numerous diatomic molecules like carbon monoxide, methane, and many others.  Even doubly or triply excited states of negative ions can be measured and identified.  For example, using that electron beam, this instrument was used to discover and measure negative helium ions with all three electrons in an excited state [i.e. He(2s22p)].  These short-lived quantum states cannot be measured using photon spectroscopy.  It was also interesting to measure different quantum states (and their half-life) of negative diatomic argon molecules and all other inert gases, which remain stable long enough to be measured in the mass-spectrometer.  Using that monoenergetic electron beam, several hundred states have been discovered in numerous atoms and molecules.  Finally, using the filtering power of the mass spectrometer, several free radicals have been studied. 

Marmet and his mentor, Larkin Kerwin, described their pioneer work on this electron source in Citation Classics (Nov. 23, 1987).  More than 100 scientific papers of spectroscopic data and interpretations have been published on this subject.  Furthermore, about 200 other papers have been presented in numerous international and national meetings.

Between 1978 and 1998, the author also published several other papers related to the fundamental principles in physics.  Several of these papers are presented on this web site.   In 1997-99, physicists of the establishment showed fierce disagreement with the fact that Marmet’s research implied that the fundamental principles of physics were being questioned.  Although the experimental work, which could determine the energy of numerous quantum stated was highly appreciated and even honored, the physics establishment required that the author should stop questioning the fundamental principles of physics.  The author was first informed by NSERC (Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada) to stop doing that fundamental research despite the fact that, being theoretical, it required no research funds – all research grants were used for the experimental work needed for the electron impact apparatus.  Since the fundamental research was still going on the following year, the grant was cut to zero, putting an end to experimental work using the monoenergetic electron beams. 

In May 1999, the head of the physics department came to Marmet’s office and said: “Ce n’est pas ton bureau que nous voulons, ton problème est que tu remets en question les principes fondamentaux de la physique.”   (“We do not want your office,  your problem is that you keep questioning the fundamental principles of physics.”)  Three months later, a letter was sent requiring Marmet’s office to become unoccupied before the end of the month.  Without research grant and being expelled from his office, Dr. Marmet continued his research alone at home.
  This was the irrevocable death of a unique instrument in the world, which was able to measure the electronic structure of negative ions and their ionization efficiency curve using a high resolution monoenergetic electron beam.  A few months later, the instrument was destroyed.  Also, this shows that physics is not only a science, it is a doctrine.  Therefore, there are heretics.   It’s not different from Galileo’s time!

Paul Marmet



Paul Marmet, Ph. D. (1932-2005)

May 2005

On May 20th 2005, Paul Marmet passed away in Ottawa after complications due to bone marrow cancer.  Dr. Marmet was a retired assistant professor at the Physics Department of the University of Ottawa.  He was formerly a Senior Researcher at the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics of the National Research Council of Canada in Ottawa.  From 1967 to 1982, he co-founded and directed the laboratory for Atomic and Molecular Physics where he was full professor at l’Université Laval in Québec City.  In 1967, he spent his sabbatical in the department of chemistry at l’Université de Liège in Belgium.  In 1961, Dr. Marmet spent a year at the CSIRO Melbourne, Australia to work on negative ions.  He developed an electron selector which played a major role in high resolution electron beam spectroscopy.

A past president of the Canadian Association of Physicists (1981-2), he also served as a member of the executive committee of the Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada.  Dr. Marmet has been elected Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada and was made an Officer of the Order of Canada.  He was awarded the Herzberg prize, the Rutherford prize, the Parizeau medal and a Service Award from the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada.  He is the author of over a hundred journal papers, four books and 200 presentations at scientific meetings.

At l’Université Laval, he worked with his mentor Larkin Kerwin on studies of the interaction of low-energy electrons at surfaces.  This enabled him to develop a high resolution electron selector – 10 meV resolution with beam energy ranging from 0.5 eV to 100 eV.  Multiple electronic states of negative ions were measured: hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, all the halogens and numerous molecules.  Even doubly or triply excited states of negative ions were measured and identified.  Several hundred states which are not accessible via optical transitions have been discovered in numerous atoms and molecules.  Finally, using the filtering power of a mass spectrometer he developped, several free radicals were studied.  His electron selector was widely used in electron scattering studies which led to several discoveries such as enhanced vibrational excitation in nitrogen and the first Feshbach resonance in helium.  The experimental system he developed was able to detect negative ions in the ionization efficiency curve.  His design remains among the most popular in use today.

His interest in astronomy led him to study the numerous anomalies observed by astronomers, especially the inconsistent redshifts reported in the works of H. Arp.  To explain these anomalies, Dr. Marmet suggested that an energy loss mechanism resulting from dipole emission could leave the same signature on spectral absorption lines as the Doppler redshift.  The dipole is created by momentum transfer of a photon in its interaction with a single molecule in a low density gas.  Observations of massive quantities of molecular hydrogen by the European Space Agency’s Infrared Space Observatory confirms there is enough interstellar gas to support his hypothesis that the cosmological redshift is not entirely of Doppler origin.  The mechanism still waits for a detailed quantum mechanical development and experimental verification in the laboratory.  He also proposed other models to explain non-intuitive quantum mechanical phenomena and relativity.  He is said to be a strong critic and a mighty rebel in physics.  He leaves many incomplete ideas and many colleagues still wishing to discuss with him.

He will be missed as a good experimentalist and also as my father.

Louis Marmet
Institute for National Measurement Standards
National Research Council, Ottawa

Canadian Who’s Who

2001 Edition

MARMET, Paul, O.C., D.Sc.; physicien, éducateur; né Lévis, Qué. 20 mai 1932; f. Albert et Corinne (Filteau) M. (décédés); e. Univ. Laval B.Sc. 1956, D.Sc. 1960; CSIRO Melbourne, Australia Postdoctoral 1960-61; ép. Jacqueline f. Albert Côté (dé.) 6 Juin 1959; enfants: Louis, Marie, Nicolas, Frédéric; Prof Adjoint, Dept. Physique Université d’Ottawa 1991-99; enseignement en Physique, Coll. Univ. Laval 1958-60; Asst. de recherche CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia 1960-61; prof. auxiliaire, Univ. Laval 1961, prof. agrégé 1966, prof. chercheur 1974-77, prof. titulaire 1970-84; Agent de recherche senior, Institut Herzberg d’astrophysique, Conseil National de recherches 1984-91; Dir. du Lab. de Physique Atomique et Moléculaire 1967-82; année sabbatique au service de Chimie, Université de Liège, Belgique 1967; mem. co-fondateur du Centre de recherche sur les atomes et les Molécules (CRAM), bureau de direction 1967-69; mem. du Comité de subventions du Gouvernement du Qué. 1975; Comité des Subventions-Physique du C.N.R.C. 1971-74, représentant Canadien, Union Internationale de Physique pure et appliquée 1976-79; Comité d’Organisation des IPEAC Paris 1977 et Tokyo 1979 (Organisateur du IV Congrès International de la Physique des Collisions Atomiques et Ioniques, Qué. 1965); Officier de l’Ordre du Canada, 1981; Médaille Herzberg de l’Assn. Canadienne des Physiciens 1971; Prix Rutherford de la Société Royale du Can. 1960; Médaille Pariseau (ACFAS) 1976; Service Award Soc. Royale d’Astronomiedu Can.; Prix Concours Scientifique de la Prov. de Qué. 1962; Bourse Post-doctorale du CNRC Melbourne 1960, 3 bourses graduées 1957-59; co-auteur High Resolution Electron Beams and their Applications 1969; Auteur A New Non-Doppler Redshift 1981; Absurdities in Modern Physics: A Solution 1993; Einstein’s Theory of Relativity versus Classical Mechanics 1997; articles nombreux; mem, Conseil de Dir., Commn. de Contrôle de l’Énergie Atomique du Can. 1979-84; mem. Société Royale du Canada; Assn. Canadienne des Physiciens Vice Prés. 1979-81, Prés. 1981-82; Am. Phys. Soc.; Soc. Royale d’Astronomie du Canada;

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List of Papers Published by Paul Marmet

  1. “Perfectionnement d’un sélecteur d’électrons et étude de quelques ions moléculaires” P. Marmet. Ph.D.  Thesis, Université Laval (1960)
  2. “An Improved Electrostatic Electron Selector” P. Marmet and Larkin Kerwin. Can. J. Phys. 38, 787 (1960)
  3. “Experimentally Measured Vibrational Levels in H2+” P. Marmet and L. Kerwin. Can. J. Phys. 38, 972 (1960)
  4. “Recent Appearance Potential Using an Electrostatic Electron Selector” Larkin Kerwin and P. Marmet. Can. J. Phys. 31, 12 (1960)
  5. “The Identification of Vibrational Levels in H2” L. Kerwin, P. Marmet and E.M. Clarke. Can J. Phys. 39, 1240 (1961)
  6. “A Mass Spectrometer for Ionization Efficiency Studies using an Electron Velocity Selector” P. Marmet and J.D. Morrison. J. Chem. Phys. 35, 746 (1961)
  7. “Secondary Reactions in the Ion Chamber of a Mass Spectrometer” P. Marmet and J.D. Morrison. J. Chem. Phys. 36, 1238 (1962)
  8. “Neutralization of Fringing Fields in the Ion Source of a Mass Spectrometer” P. Marmet, J.D. Morrison and D.L. Swingler. Rev. Sci. Instr. 33, 239 (1962)
  9. “Recent Work with the Electrostatic Electron Selector” L. Kerwin, P. Marmet and E.M. Clarke. Advances in Mass Spectrometry, Volume 2 Pergamon Press, Oxford (1962)
  10. “Opération d’un filtre de masse quadrupolaire en condition optimum” P. Marmet et P. Marchand. Can. J. Phys. 42, 1914 (1964)
  11. “Effet des charges d’espace électronique sur les courbes de probabilité d’ionisation des gaz” P. Marmet. Can. J. Phys. 42, 2102 (1964)
  12. “Near 100% Efficiency Ion Detector for use with Quadrupole Mass Filter” P. Marchand, C. Paquet and P. Marmet. Rev. Sci. Inst. 37, 1702 (1966)
  13. “Simple System for Photoelectron Spectrum Determination” P. Marmet, P. Natalis and A. Dumont. Rev. Sci. Inst. 39, 683 (1968)
  14. “New Type of Monovelocity Electron Source” Paul Marmet. Rev. Sci. Inst. 39, 1932 (1968)
  15. “Threshold Behavior of the Cross Section for Ionization of He and Ar by Monoenergetic Electrons” P. Marchand, C. Paquet and P. Marmet. Phys. Rev. 180 123 (1969)
  16. “High Resolution Electron Beams and their Applications” L. Kerwin, P. Marmet and J.D. Carette. Case studies in Atomic Collisions Physics, Edited by E. W. McDaniel and M. R. C. Mc Dowell, North Holland Pub. Company (1969)
  17. “Quadrupole Mass Analyzers” P. Marmet. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 8, 262 (1971)
  18. “Formation de O- de NO par impact électronique” C. Paquet, P. Marchand and P. Marmet. Can. J. Phys. 49, 2013(1971)
  19. “Natural Line Shapes Resolved in the Ionization Yield of He below the n=2 Threshold” J.J. Quémener, C. Paquet and P. Marmet. Phys. Rev. A4, 494 (1971)
  20. “Electron-Impact Excitation of 3s3p nl States of Ar” E. Bolduc, J.J. Quémener and P. Marmet. Can. J. Phys. 49, 3095 (1971)
  21. “Energy Analyzer for Charged Particles” P. Marmet. Canadian Patent Office No: 905567 July 18, 1972
  22. “Autoionizing and Negative Ion States of Xe and Kr below the P Limits” P. Marmet, E. Bolduc and J.J. Quémener. J. Chem. Phys. 56, 3463 (1972)
  23. “Autoionizing 2s 2p 3s3l States of Ne and Related Ne Resonances” E. Bolduc, J.J. Quémener and P. Marmet. J. Chem. Phys. 57, 1957 (1072)
  24. “Autoionizing levels of N2 converging to the AΠu and BΣu limits” R. Carbonneau and P. Marmet. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 10, 143 (1972)
  25. “New Large Aperture Energy Analyzer” P. Marmet. Rev. Sci. Instr, 44, 67 (1973)
  26. “Properties of a New Non-Differentiating Treatment of Experimental Data” R. Carbonneau, E. Bolduc and P. Marmet. Can. J. Phys. 51, 505 (1973)
  27. “Negative and Neutral Autoionizing States Detected in the Electroionization Curves in CO” R. Carbonneau and P. Marmet. Can. J. Phys. 51, 2202 (1973)
  28. “Theoretical and Experimental Line Profiles of Autoionizing States as Reflected in their Electroionization Curve” E. Bolduc and P. Marmet. Can. J. Phys. 51, 2108 (1973)
  29. “Electroionization Spectrum of O2” R. Carbonneau and P. Marmet.  Phys. Rev. A9, 1898 (1974)
  30. “Optimizing Ion Injection Phase in Quadrupole Mass Filters” D. Lefaivre and P. Marmet. Rev. Sci. Inst. 45, 1134 (1974)
  31. “The Electroionization Spectrum of Nitric Oxide” R. Carbonneau and P. Marmet. Can. J. Phys. 52, 1885(1974)
  32. “Ionization dissociative de N2” H. Wankenne, E. Bolduc and P. Marmet. Can. J. Phys. 53, 770 (1975)
  33. “Relative Cross Section in Electroionization” P. Marmet. J. Chem. Phys. 63, 249 (1975)
  34. “Electron Excitation of Ar Between 26 and 34 eV” D. Lefaivre and P. Marmet. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. and Ion Phys. 18, 153 (1975)
  35. “Resonance in the Total Electron Impact Excitation Cross Section of Metastable States of Helium Near 60 eV” E. Bolduc and P. Marmet. J. Phys. B8, 1241 (1975)
  36. “Excitation de l’argon par impact électronique entre 43 et 60 eV” P. Marmet, E. Bolduc and J.J. Quémener. Can. J. Phys. 53, 2438 (1975)
  37. “Atomic Structure in Kr between 22 and 32 eV” M. Valin and P. Marmet. J. Phys. B8, 2953 (1975)
  38. “Comparison of Techniques for Extracting Signals from Strong Background” H. Arsenault and P. Marmet. Rev. Sci. Inst. 48, 512 (1977)
  39. “On the Subject of Displaced Thresholds” P. Marchand, P. Veillette and P. Marmet. J. Chem. Phys. 67, 2908 (1977)
  40. “Ionization and Dissociative Ionization of CO by Electron Impact” N. Bussières and P. Marmet, Can. J. Phys. 55, 1899 (1977)
  41. “Formation du néon métastable entre 42 et 46 eV” D. Huard, P. Marmet and E. Bolduc. Can. J. Phys. 56, 82 (1978)
  42. “On the Heat of formation of CS” M.-J. Hubin-Franskin, D. Huard and P. Marmet. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. and Ion Phys. 27, 263 (1978)
  43. “New Digital Filter for the Analysis of Experimental Data” P. Marmet. Rev. Sci. Instr. 50, 79 (1979)
  44. “Electroionization of D2O and H2O and Study of Fragments Hand OH” D. Lefaivre and P. Marmet. Can. J. Phys. 56, 1549 (1978)
  45. “Excited States of CH4 and CD4 between 18 and 22 eV” P. Marmet and L. Binette. J. Phys. B:  Atom. Molec. Phys. 11, 3707 (1978)
  46. “Excitation and Ionization of OCS and CS by Electron Impact” M.-J. Hubin-Franskin, P. Marmet and D. Huard. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 33, 311 (1980)
  47. “Ionization Energies of Xe2+and Xe3+” R. Dutil and P. Marmet. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. and Ion Phys. 35, 371(1980)
  48. “Political Action and the ACP” <<Actions politiques et l’ACP>> P. Marmet, President, Canadian Association of Physicists, Physics in Canada, Vol. 37 No: 5, P. 99-102, Septembre 1981. In the same issue, page 103, Profile of the President: Paul Marmet
  49. “A New Non-Doppler Redshift” P. Marmet. Book: Physics Dept. Laval University, Québec June 1981 (64pages)
  50. “Simple and Efficient Mono-Energetic Electron Source” M. Proulx, P. Marmet and R. Dutil. Rev. Sci. Inst. 53, 778 (1982)
  51. “A Frequency Swept Quadrupole Mass Filter” P. Marmet and M. Proulx. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. and Ion Phys.42, 3(1982)
  52. “Electroionization of NH and ND near Threshold” M. Proulx and P. Marmet. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. and Ion Phys.50, 129 (1983)
  53. “Ionization and Appearance Potentials of CH by electron impact” P. Plessis, P. Marmet and R. Dutil,  J. Phys. B 16, 1283 (1983)
  54. “Impact électronique sur les halogénures d’hydrogène: Double ionisation, fragmentation et molécules de van der Waals” H.K. Nasrallah, P. Marmet and R. Dutil. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. and Ion Phys. (1983)
  55. “Excited States of HCl and DCl and their Negative Ions between 12.5 and 28 eV” H.K. Nasrallah and P.Marmet. J. Phys. B18, 2075-2086 (1985)
  56. “Spectroscopie d’électroionisation de HBr et DBr entre 11 et 25 eV” P. Marmet et H.K. Nasrallah. Can. J. Phys. 63, 1015-1021 (1985)
  57. “Electroionization Study of Acetylene and Fragment Ions” P. Plessis and P.Marmet. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. and Ion Processes 70, 23-44 (1986)
  58. “Electroionization Study of Ethylene: Ionization and Appearance Energies, ion-pair Formations and Negative Ions” P. Plessis, P. Marmet Can. J. Phys. 65, 165-172 (1987)
  59. “A New Technique to Measure the total Electron Scattering Cross Section: Application to Helium” P. Marmet, P. Plessis and R. Dutil. Int. J. Mass Spectrometry and Ion Processes 75, 265-273 (1987)
  60. “Electroionization Study of Ethane: Ionization and Appearance Energies, Ion-Pair Formations and Negative Ions” P. Plessis, P. Marmet Can. J. Chem. 65, 1424-1432 (1987)
  61. “Electroionization Study of Ethane: Structures in the Ionization and Appearance Curves” P. Plessis, P. Marmet. Can. J. Chem. 65, 2004-2008 (1987)
  62. “Excited States of K and K+with the 3p configuration” P. Marmet, M. Proulx, Physics of Electronic Collisions ed. J. Geddes, H. B. Gilbody, A. E. Kingston, C. L. Latimer, P184 (1987)
  63. “An Improved Electrostatic Electron Selector” P. Marmet and L. Kerwin Citation Classics, a) Engineering, Technology and Applied Sciences 18, 20 (1987), b) Physical, Chemical and Earth Sciences 18, 20 (1987)
  64. “Electroionization Study of Ethylene: Structures in the Ionization and Appearance Curves” P. Plessis, P. Marmet Can. J. Phys. 65, 803-807 (1987)
  65. “Electroionization des alcalins: Mise au point d’un nouvel appareil de mesure” M. Proulx, P. Marmet Can. J. Phys. 66, 103 (1988)
  66. “A New Non-Doppler Redshift” P. Marmet Phys. Essays 1, 24-32 (1988)
  67. “Excited States of HI and DI and their Negative Ions between 10 and 20 eV” P. Marmet, H. K. Nasrallah. Can. J. Phys. 66, 564-569 (1988)
  68. “Resonance in the Electron Impact Ionization Spectrum of Na” P. Marmet and M. Proulx, Book: “Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy 1988″ P. 89-93 (1988). Edited by T B Lucatorto and J E Parks” Institute of Physics, Bristol and Philadelphia
  69. “Almanach Graphique 1989” Publié par le Centre de Québec de la Société Royale d’astronomie du Canada, 4 pages (Dessiné à l’institut Herzberg tout comme en 1986, 1987 et 1988)
  70. “The 3 K Microwave Background and the Olbers’ Paradox” P. Marmet, Science, 240, 705 (1988)
  71. “Redshift of Spectral Lines in the Sun’s Chromosphere” P. Marmet. IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science: Space and Cosmic Plasma, 17 238-243 (1989)
  72. “Cosmic Matter and the Non-Expanding Universe” P. Marmet and Grote Reber, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 17, 264-269 (1989)
  73. “Non-Doppler Redshift of Some Galactic Objects” P. Marmet. IEEE Transaction on Plasma Science, Feb. 1990, Vol. 18 No 1, Pages 56-60, Special issue on Plasma Cosmology “IEEE Workshop on Plasma Cosmology” La Jolla Calif. (Feb. 1989)
  74. “New Structure in the Electron Ionization Efficiency Curve of Helium above the 2s2pD negative Ion Resonance” R. Gosselin and P. Marmet Proceedings of the Sixteen International Conference on the Physics of Electronic and Atomic Collisions, page 206 1989. Edited by A. Dalgarno, R. S. Freud, M. S. Lubell, and T. B. Lucatorto. New York (July 26-Aug. 1, 1989)
  75. “Excited Sates of Xe and Xe+ Above the PIonization Limit” P. Marmet. Proceedings of the Sixteen International Conference on the Physics of Electronic and Atomic Collisions, page 244, 1989. Edited by A. Dalgarno, R. S. Freud, M. S. Lubell, and T. B. Lucatorto. New York (July 26 – Aug. 1, 1989)
  76. “The Deceptive Illusion of The Big Bang Cosmology” P. Marmet. La Physique au Canada, Vol. 46. No. 5 (Sept. 1990)
  77. “Big Bang Cosmology Meet an Astronomical Death” P. Marmet. 21st Century Science and Technology, 3, No: 252-59, (1990)
  78. “Electron-atom interaction mechanism: Xenon states between the P(1/2) and P(3/2) limits”  P. Marmet, M. Proulx. Journal of Physics B:At. Mol. Opt. Phys 23, 549-560 (1990)
  79. “Observation of 2p states in the Electron Ionization Efficiency Curve of Helium between 58 and 59 eV”  R. N. Gosselin and P. Marmet. Phys. Rev. A. Vol. 41 p 1335-9, (1990)
  80. “Relativity and the Formation of Black Holes” P. Marmet. Apeiron, No:7 Page 8-10, Summer (1990)
  81. “L’illusion séduisante de la cosmologie du Big Bang” P. Marmet. Publié dans “Fusion”, édité à Paris, Volume No: 34, Page 33-41 (Octobre-Novembre 1990)
  82. “A New Mechanism to Explain Observations Incompatible with the Big Bang” P. Marmet.  Apeiron,  Ed. R. Keys, 4405 St-Dominique Montréal, pages 45-54, Winter-Spring 1991 No: 9-10, (1991)
  83. “Post Collision Interaction and The Threshold of Electronically Excited Auto-ionizing States” P. Marmet, Volume: “The Electron 1990 Workshop” Editor: A.Weingartshofer and D. Hestenes. Kluwer Academic Publishers Spuiboulevard 50 P.O.Box 173300 AA Dordrecht, The Netherlands (1990)
  84. “La physique de la lumière fatiguée et le décalage non-cosmologique” Paul Marmet. Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences, No: 1, Vol. 39, p. 185-192. Présenté par le professeur Stefan Wegrzyn, Membre de l’académie des sciences de Pologne, Gliwice, ul. Konarskiego 11 m 3 Pologne (1991)
  85. “Lettre à l’éditeur” P. Marmet. “Physics in Canada”,”Physics in Canada” Vol. 47 No. 4 juillet, p. 112 (1991)
  86. “Lettre à l’éditeur” P. Marmet, Journal 21st Century, Science and Technology. Answer to Dr. Kenneth J. Epstein, Summer (1991)
  87. “The Cosmological Constant and the Redshift of Quasars” P. Marmet. Special Issue of “IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science Vol: 20, No: 6, pages 1-7 (Dec 1992)
  88. “Absurdities in Modern Physics: A Solution” P. Marmet. ISBN 0-921272-15-4. 144 pages, Hard coverEdited: c/o R. Yergeau,” Les Éditions du Nordir”, Simard Hall 165 Waller St. Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5
  89. “Quantum Mechanics and Its Paradox: A Realistic Solution to Mermin’s EPR Apparatus”. P. Marmet, Physics Essays Vol. 6 No: 3 (1993)
  90. “On the Interpretation of the Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Relationship” P. Marmet. Physics Essays, Volume 7 No: 3 Page 340-345 (1994)
  91. “Stellar Aberration and Einstein’s Relativity” P. Marmet. Physics Essays, p. 96. Vol 9, No 1 (1996)
  92. “An Alternative Interpretation of the 3K Radiation” P. Marmet, AAAS Meeting Pacific Division San Francisco, Calif. (19-23 June 1994)
  93. “The Origin of the 3 K Radiation” P. Marmet. Apeiron, Vol. 2 No: 1 P. 1-4 (January 1995)
  94. “Incompatibility between Einstein’s Relativity and Lorentz Equation” P. Marmet. The Present Status of the Quantum Theory of Light, Kluwer Academic Publishers P.O.Box 173300 AA Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 383-395 (1996)
  95. “A Realistic Description of Length Contraction” P. Marmet. Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science AAAS, Flagstaff, AZ (June 2-6 1996)
  96. “The Physical Reality of Length Contraction” P. Marmet. Physical Interpretations of Relativity Theory, British Society for the Philosophy of Science, London, p. 231 (September 1996)
  97. “Length Contraction without Relativity” P. Marmet. Proceedings of the IV International Conference on Space, Time and Gravitation, Re: Dr. M. Varin 65-9-1 Pulkovskoye Rd. 196140 St-Petersburg, Russia
  98. “Einstein’s Theory of Relativity versus classical Mechanics” P. Marmet. Book, Ed. Newton Physics Books, 200 pages (1997)
  99. “Transformation of Internal Energy of Matter Between Frames” P. Marmet. Proceedings of “Physical Interpretations of Relativity Theory, by the “British Society for the Philosophy of Science” London, Page 218-223 (September 1998)
  100. “The Advance of the Perihelion of Mercury using Classical Mechanics” P. Marmet. Proceedings of “Physical Interpretations of Relativity Theory”, by the “British Society for the Philosophy of Science” London, Page 2203-217 (September 1998)
  101. “Relativistic Deflection of Light Using Radio Signals and Visible Light” P. Marmet et C. Couture. Physics Essays, Physics Essays, Volume 12 No: 1 (March 1999)
  102. “Classical Description of the Advance of the Perihelion of Mercury” P. Marmet, Physics Essays, Vol 12, No 3, p. 468-487 (1999)
  103. “Einstein’s Mercury Problem Solved in Galileo’s Coordinates” P.Marmet. Galileo Back in Italy, Per il ritorno della razionality nella Scienza moderna. Istituto di Chimica “G.Ciamician” Via Selmi 2- Bologna, Italy, Societa Editrice Andromeda, Book of papers, p. 335-351 (Maggio 1999)
  104. “Discovery of H2 in Space Explains Dark Matter and Redshift” P. Marmet, 21st Century, Science and Technology, Vol. 13 No: 1 p. 5-7 (2000)
  105. “The GPS and the Constant Velocity of Light” P. Marmet. Acta Scientiarum, Universidade Estadual de Maringà, Brazil, ISSN 1415-6814, Vol 22, No: 5, p. 1969-1279 (December 2000) 

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